How is the performance improvement possible through engine tuning
More power through tuning ? Especially the performance increase in the car is in the center of attention of tuning fans. In addition to an improvement of the exhaust systems and the aerodynamics, the engine tuning should serve above all . There are numerous ways to increase the engine power. But what is permissible? And what benefits do the individual engine tuning areas bring? You can read this and more in the following guide .
The engine tuning – which types are there?
In addition to changes in fuel consumption can also be found in engine tuning variants in which the tuners intervene in the software of the vehicles. To increase the performance of the vehicle engines, tuners are numerous options available, such. B .:
- nitrous oxide engine
- water injection
- chip Tuning
Most of the measures have one thing in common: after the conversion, more oxygen is to be available for combustion , so that more fuel is burned. A stronger combustion increases then above all the speed.
However, a special position in the engine tuning is the so-called chip tuning. Larger conversions are usually not required here. Instead, the mechanics use their PC here and change the software of the motor vehicle – without getting their hands dirty. But later.
FAQ: Engine Tuning
How much is engine tuning?
That depends, among other things, on the type of tuning you choose. The costs are between several hundred and several thousand euros.Is engine tuning only used to increase performance?
No. Although a common goal is to increase the maximum possible speed, but also a reduction in fuel consumption can be achieved by certain tuning measures.Are there sanctions for engine tuning?
You will have to expect a fine if you drive with an inadmissibly converted vehicle. If you impair road safety in this way , a point in Flensburg usually comes to you as well.
Nitrous Oxide Tuning
In nitrous oxide tuning, liquefied nitrous oxide – laughing gas or colloquially known as nitro – is introduced together with the fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine. In nitrous oxide injection there are different possibilities:
- Dry System : The nitrous oxide is injected separately into the combustion chambers. The supply of gasoline or diesel continues to take over the fuel injection system. However, the provision of sufficient fuel is not so easy to ensure because the standard engines or carburetor can not be sufficiently adapted. The performance increase usually remains or is barely perceptible.
- Wet System : In this form, the injection of nitrous oxide and fuel takes place at the same time. Thus, the correct mixing ratio in the combustion chamber can be produced relatively straightforwardly – by so-called mixing nozzles . The increase in performance is the most possible way.
If the nitrous oxide system is switched off, the vehicle usually runs normally again.
The liquefaction of the gaseous substance is possible by generating high pressure – usually this is nowadays cold pressure used.
The nitrous oxide is usually in gas cylinders , which are usually installed in the trunk.
Due to the heating in the engine compartment, the nitrous oxide breaks down into nitrogen and oxygen . The additionally provided oxygen should now be able to burn more fuel, which increases the performance of the vehicle – between 50 and 100 percent increase in performance are possible according to some tuning experts.
The supply of nitrous oxide can theoretically burn more fuel at the same time than usual. However, this also depends on the type of combustion fuel (gasoline, diesel).
However , this also increases the fuel consumption , because more gasoline or diesel must be injected into the combustion chamber. However, to ensure this, it usually requires further tuning measures on the vehicle. In particular, the chip tuning is then used. Only then tuners can increase the amount of fuel introduced.
A higher combustion power of the engine should then also lead to an increase in performance. In addition to providing additional oxygen for combustion, another property of the nitrous oxide liquefied liquefied gas is of interest to tuners: the low temperature of -80 degrees Celsius also allows for engine cooling. As a result, overheating with increasing combustion is prevented. This too may favor an increase in the power curve.
In general, the nitrous oxide tuning is used only for the short-term, rapid acceleration of a vehicle. In the long term, the nitrous oxide injection can not be used, otherwise the wear of the engine would be the result.
Engine tuning by means of water injection
In the so-called water injection is particularly the cooling function of the water in the foreground of the tuning. Distilled water – or a water-alcohol mixture – is sprayed into the combustion chamber. The evaporation of the water helps to cool the engine.Evaporative cooling:
The relatively cool water absorbs the heat of vaporization in the combustion chamber – the heat energy transfers a little to the water – causing the water to evaporate and the total heat in the combustion chamber to decrease at the same time. This also protects the engine – it prevents wear and tear.
During the evaporation process of the water mixture also creates an increase in oxygen . Similar to the nitrous oxide injection can theoretically burn more fuel. Alone the cooling of the engine can cause an increase in performance. The ignition also usually shifts faster because the fuel-air mixture reaches an ideal ratio through the additional oxygen faster.
Due to the strong cooling effect engine tuning by water injection is quite effective. A theoretical additional power of up to 40 percent should be possible according to some H&S Mini Maxx Tuner – however, further measures are necessary here too (eg chip tuning).
The water for injection, the systems can be either extra built-water tanks or remove the windshield wiper system .Engine tuning with sport
air filter : The installation of a larger and more permeable air filter should also provide more air for combustion. The problem with this is, however, that even larger particles can get into the engine compartment, which would severely damage the engine. In most cases, the air filter tuning has more of an effect on the sound, but not on the actual engine performance.
Turbocharger tuning: intercooling
What is a turbocharger? These components use the energy of the outflowing exhaust gases to supply more air to the engine and thus to achieve cooling. Turbochargers consist of a turbine and an additional compressor. The turbine rotates through the exhaust gas flow, which activates the compressor in the intake manifold.
The air flowing into the engine compartment is compressed . More air enters the combustion chamber and at the same time the pistons have to use less energy to suck in enough air. This allows more fresh air to be supplied faster for the combustion process, the ignition reacts faster . The turbocharger ultimately requires less energy to produce the necessary air concentration for the combustion process.
Especially with diesel vehicles , the turbo can be found. However, the effect usually only occurs at a higher torque , since the density of the exhaust gases is sufficient only at high speeds to set the turbine in motion (so-called “turbo lag”). Even petrol engines are not always equipped exclusively with so-called naturally aspirated engines (turbo petrol engine).Suction motor or piston engine:
With these engines, the work of the pistons in the intake manifold creates a negative pressure. Due to the difference in pressure between the engine’s interior and exterior, air automatically flows in until the pressure is balanced again. The air supply is essential for the combustion of fuels. Substances can only burn in the presence of oxygen.
To reduce the temperature in the engine compartment, there are the so-called intercoolers , which are to be installed in the intake system. They are standard in vehicles, but their performance is limited. For engine tuning there are optimized intercoolers, which increase the cooling effect. The intercooler is usually connected between the turbocharger or compressor and the intake valve . The air entering the pre-combustion chamber should also cool the engine compartment by cooling the auxiliary component.
By cooling more air can enter the combustion chamber, since colder air has a smaller volume than warm .
If you want to tune your turbo diesel, offers a charge air cooler. However, you usually need more changes here as well. In most cases, you will not achieve full effectiveness until you change the injection quantity of the fuel via chiptuning . The ignition of the vehicle depends on the correct ratio of air and fuel in the combustion chambers.
The charge air cooler changes the air ratio , but the amount of fuel stays the same. Only through an adaptation can not burn only theoretically more fuel. If this does not happen, then only the ignition control is optimized, because faster enough air for combustion is available – so faster the optimal fuel-air mixture is made to ignite.
A charge air cooler costs between 200 and 400 euros .
In addition to intercooling, engine tuning in this area is also possible by replacing the stock turbocharger with a more powerful one. This allows the air to be further compressed.Compressor tuning:
For gasoline engines, similar compressors are found on the market: they actively channel additional air into the intake system. Unlike the turbocharger, the compressors are independent of the exhaust gas density and start immediately. A “turbo lag” is missing. However, these facilities are quite expensive with costs around 5,000 euros . Here, too, a further optimization is recommended by the chip tuning in gasoline or diesel.
Chiptuning: Tuning on the engine via the software
Today’s cars have little in common with the first motor-powered vehicles: they are more computers than a simple wheeled pedestal . While engine tuning used to be possible above all through modifications to the engine block, changes in the software of the vehicles are now possible. Today’s vehicles are no longer controllable only by mechanical and physical processes, but by complex electronics .
Which signals does the chip of a vehicle process, for example?
- Injection quantity : How much fuel is in the combustion chamber or how much fuel is needed?
- Lambda control: Using the lambda probe of the catalytic converter, the exhaust gas values and the composition of the combustion gases can be analyzed. So the emission of pollutants is adjustable. Is the composition optimal or does the combustion need to be adjusted?
- Temperature: What is the temperature of engine and oil? What is the outside temperature?
- Ignition: At what time does the engine ignite or when should it ignite?
- Air density: How much air is in the combustion chamber?
1. Reprogramming the chip
Comparatively straightforward is the manipulation of the existing control in the vehicle. Using an OBD2 interface , the tuner can reconfigure the car’s controls and program them according to their wishes.OBD stands for On-Board Diagnostics. This is the system for vehicle diagnostics. A female connector inside the vehicle provides access to Menchanics by connecting the diagnostic connector and a tester. This process primarily serves to analyze possible system errors and to remedy them. But also for the engine tuning this connection is therefore usable.
The tuning professional downloads all the data for tuning from the chip and can then change it on an external device at will. If all program changes have been made accordingly, the specialist will load the modified version of the control program back onto the device in the vehicle, overwriting the old programming. This process is also called flashing .
Basically, this can be compared with the reinstallation of a PC operating system . Accordingly, the original state of the system can be restored if you are not completely satisfied with the adjustments. The engine tuning is also possible without dirty hands.
The costs for reprogramming are up to 1,000 euros . Inquire in advance at specialist workshops that specialize in tuning. Reputable providers will point out possible risks and only make modifications that can not lead to the loss of the operating license.
If, for example, the emissions increase due to the manipulation , it is likely that your vehicle no longer complies with the legal guidelines. Since this also changes the pollutant class , the information in the vehicle tax is no longer correct . In case of doubt, high back payments or even a tax evasion procedure may follow.
2. Exchange of the control
Vehicles built before 1999 usually do not have an OBD2 interface. In addition, there may be so-called EPROMs: These software memories are write-protected so that flashing is not possible.EPROM = Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory: These are memory blocks that can only be programmed once. After that, it is only possible to read the stored information – or delete it. Reprogramming or overwriting is not feasible.
In order to enable engine tuning via the software, it is usually necessary to remove the old chip in the control and insert a new one. However, this requires the utmost caution. If the chip is incorrectly built into the controller – or a defect in it – it can quickly lead to serious technical problems. In the worst case, an engine failure can not be ruled out – and then would have a new engine ago.
Since much more work is required for this engine tuning and you also need to buy a new tuning chip, the price of chip replacement increases compared to reprogramming.
3. Powerbox tuning
Do chip tuning yourself? It can work well with less effort. Instead of directly making modifications to the chip of the control, it is also possible to install a so-called tuning box or black box. This is upstream of the control unit and manipulates the sensor values that are sent to the vehicle control.
In a sense, the changes were not made to the brain itself, but to the signal transmission – the nerve tracts. The tuning box deceives the vehicle control by transmitting incorrect data and blocking the actual sensor values. For example, the controller does not operate when the engine is overrunning, inter alia
On the other hand, the blackbox may trick the controller into injecting too little fuel into the combustion chamber. In response, the controller gives the impulse to increase the injection quantity . More fuel is available during combustion.
The problem with the method, however, is that the control also ensures the safety of the vehicle. If the engine overheats , the control automatically shuts down combustion to allow for cooling. By blocking the data, however, the controller does not experience when overheating threatens and thus can not counteract. In addition, the fine tuning of the individual segments to each other is missing, whereby the power output is rather low.